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Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC)
Macroscale Hydrologic Model

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Dept. of Civil and Env. Engineering
University of Washington
Box 352700
Seattle, WA 98195-2700
WARNING: You are viewing an old version of the VIC documentation. Please visit http://vic.readthedocs.org for the most current documentation.

VIC Model References

A comprehensive, up-to-date description of the current model:

Gao, H., Q. Tang, X. Shi, C. Zhu, T. J. Bohn, F. Su, J. Sheffield, M. Pan, D. P. Lettenmaier, and E. F. Wood, 2010: Water Budget Record from Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model. In Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for Terrestrial Water Cycle Data Records (in review).

Primary Historical Reference

Liang, X., D. P. Lettenmaier, E. F. Wood, and S. J. Burges, 1994: A Simple hydrologically Based Model of Land Surface Water and Energy Fluxes for GSMs, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D7), 14,415-14,428.

Other Historical References

Liang, X., 1994: A Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Land Surface Representation for General Circulation Models, Water Resour. Series, TR140, 208 pp., Univ. of Washington, Seattle.

Liang, X., D. P. Lettenmaier, E. F. Wood, 1996: One-dimensional Statistical Dynamic Representation of Subgrid Spatial Variability of Precipitation in the Two-Layer Variable Infiltration Capacity Model, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D16) 21,403-21,422.

Liang, X., E. F. Wood, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1996: Surface soil moisture parameterization of the VIC-2L model: Evaluation and modifications, Global and Planetary Change, 13, 195-206.

Liang, X., E. F. Wood, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1999: Modeling ground heat flux in land surface parameterization schemes, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D8), 9581-9600.

Cherkauer, K. A. and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1999: Hydrologic effects of frozen soils in the upper Mississippi River basin, J. Geophys. Res., 104(D16), 19,599-19,610.

Liang, X., and Z. Xie, 2001: A new surface runoff parameterization with subgrid-scale soil heterogeneity for land surface models, Advances in Water Resources, 24(9-10), 1173-1193.

Cherkauer, K. A., L. C. Bowling, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2003: Variable infiltration capacity cold land process model updates, Global and Planetary Change, 38, 151-159.

Bowling, L. C., J. W. Pomeroy and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2004: Parameterization of blowing snow sublimation in a macroscale hydrology model, J. Hydromet., 5(5), 745-762, doi: 10.1175/1525-7541.

Adam, J.C., and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2008: Application of new precipitation and reconstructed streamflow products to streamflow trend attribution in Northern Eurasia, J. Climate, 21(8), 1807-1828.

Andreadis, K., P. Storck, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2009: Modeling snow accumulation and ablation processes in forested environments, Water Resour. Res., 45, W05429, doi:10.1029/2008WR007042.

Bowling, L.C. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2010: Modeling the effects of lakes and wetlands on the water balance of Arctic Environments, J. Hydromet., 11, 276-295, doi: 10.1175/2009JHM1084.1.

Bohn, T. J., B. Livneh, J. W. Oyler, S. W. Running, B. Nijssen, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2013a: Global evaluation of MTCLIM and related algorithms for forcing of ecological and hydrological models, Agr. Forest. Meteorol., 176, 38-49, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2013.03.003.

Bohn, T. J., E. Podest, R. Schroeder, N. Pinto, K. C. McDonald, M. Glagolev, I. Filippov, S. Maksyutov, M. Heimann, X. Chen, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2013b: Modeling the effects of surface moisture heterogeneity on wetland carbon fluxes in the West Siberian Lowland, Biogeosciences, 10, 6559-6576, doi:10.5194/bg-10-6559-2013.

Streamflow Routing Model References

Primary Historical Reference

Lohmann, D., R. Nolte-Holube, and E. Raschke, 1996: A large-scale horizontal routing model to be coupled to land surface parametrization schemes, Tellus, 48(A), 708-721.

Lohmann, D., E. Raschke, B. Nijssen and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1998: Regional scale hydrology: I. Formulation of the VIC-2L model coupled to a routing model, Hydrol. Sci. J., 43(1), 131-141.

Other Historical References

Nijssen, B.N., D.P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, S.W. Wetzel, and E.F. Wood, 1997: Streamflow simulation for continental-scale river basins, Water Resour. Res., 33(4), 711-724.

Lohmann, D., E. Raschke, B. Nijssen, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 1998: Regional Scale Hydrology: II. Application of the VIC-2L Model to the Weser River, Germany, Hydrological Sciences Journal, 43(1), 143-157.

Selected Application References

Abdulla, F.A., D.P. Lettenmaier, E.F. Wood and J.A. Smith, 1996: Application of a macroscale hydrologic model to estimate the water balance of the Arkansas-Red river basin, J. Geophys. Res., 101(D3), 7449-7459.

Wood, E.F., D. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, B. Nijssen and S.W. Wetzel, 1997: Hydrological modeling of continental-scale basins Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 25, 279-300.

Nijssen, B.N., D.P. Lettenmaier, X. Liang, S.W. Wetzel, and E.F. Wood, 1997: Streamflow simulation for continental-scale river basins, Water Resour. Res., 33(4), 711-724.

Liang, X., E. F. Wood, D. Lohmann, D.P. Lettenmaier, and others, 1998: The Project for Intercomparison of Land-surface Parameterization Schemes (PILPS) Phase-2c Red-Arkansas River Basin Experiment: 2. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Energy Fluxes, J. Global and Planetary Change, 19, 137-159.

Lohmann, D. E. Raschke, B. Nijssen and D.P. Lettenmaier, 1998: Regional scale hydrology: II. Application of the VIC-2L model to the Weser river, Germany, Hydrol. Sci. J., 43(1), 143-158.

Haddeland, I., D.P. Lettenmaier, and T. Skaugen, 2006a: Reconciling simulated moisture fluxes resulting from alternate hydrologic model time steps and energy budget closure assumptions, J. Hydromet., 7(3), 355-370, doi: 10.1175/JHM496.1.

Haddeland, I., D.P. Lettenmaier, and T. Skaugen, 2006b: Effects of irrigation on the water and energy balances of the Colorado and Mekong river basins, J. Hydrol., 324(1-4), 210-223, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.09.028.

Hamlet, A.F. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 1999: Effects of Climate Change on Hydrology and Water Resources in the Columbia River Basin, Am. Water Res. Assoc., 35(6), 1597-1623.

Hamlet, A.F. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 1999: Columbia River Streamflow Forecasting Based on ENSO and PDO Climate Signals, ASCE J. of Water Res. Planning and Mgmt., 125(6), 333-341.

Leung, L.R., A.F. Hamlet, D.P. Lettenmaier and A. Kumar, 1999: Simulations of the ENSO Hydroclimate Signals in the Pacific Northwest Columbia River Basin, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80(11), 2313-2329.

Mattheussen, B., R.L. Kirschbaum, I.A. Goodman, G.M. O'Donnell and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2000: Effects of land cover change on streamflow in the interior Columbia river basin (USA and Canada), Hydrol. Process., 14, 867-885.

Hamlet, A.F. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2000: Long-Range Climate Forecasting and its Use for Water Management in the Pacific Northwest Region of North America,J. Hydroinformatics, 02.3, 163-182.

Maurer, E.P., G.M. O'Donnell, D.P. Lettenmaier, and J.O. Roads, 2001: Evaluation of the Land Surface Water Budget in NCEP/NCAR and NCEP/DOE Reanalyses using an Off-line Hydrologic Model. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D16), 17,841-17,862.

Maurer, E.P., G.M. O'Donnell, D.P. Lettenmaier, and J.O. Roads, 2001: Evaluation of NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Water and Energy Budgets using Macroscale Hydrologic Simulations, In: Land Surface Hydrology, Meteorology, and Climate: Observations and Modeling, AGU series in Water Science and Applications, V. Lakshmi, J. Albertson, and J. Schaake eds.,pp. 137-158.

Nijssen, B.N., R. Schnur and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2001: Global retrospective estimation of soil moisture using the Variable Infiltration Capacity land surface model, 1980-1993, J. Clim., 14(8), 1790-1808, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<1790:GREOSM>2.0.CO;2.

Nijssen, B.N., G.M. O'Donnell, D.P. Lettenmaier and E.F. Wood, 2001: Predicting the discharge of global rivers, J. Clim., 14(15), 3307-3323, doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<3307:PTDOGR>2.0.CO;2.

Nijssen, B.N., G.M. O'Donnell, A.F. Hamlet, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2001: Hydrologic sensitivity of global rivers to climate change, Climatic Change, 50(1-2), 143-175, doi: 10.1023/A:1010616428763.

Adam, J.C. and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2003: Adjustment of global gridded precipitation for systematic bias, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D9), 1-14, doi:10.1029/2002JD002499.

Adam, J.C., E.A. Clark, D.P. Lettenmaier, and E.F. Wood, 2006: Correction of Global Precipitation Products for Orographic Effects, J. Clim., 19(1), 15-38, doi: 10.1175/JCLI3604.1.

Beyene, T., D.P. Lettenmaier, and P. Kabat, 2009: Hydrologic impacts of climate change on the Nile River basin: Implications of the 2007 IPCC climate scenarios, Climatic Change, online first, doi:10.1007/s10584-009-9693-0.

Cuo, L., D.P. Lettenmaier D.P., M. Alberti, and J.E. Richey, 2009: Effects of a century of land cover and climate change on the hydrology of Puget Sound basin, Hydrological Processes, 23, 907-933.

Gao, H., T. J. Bohn, E. Podest, K. C. McDonald, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2011: On the causes of the shrinking of Lake Chad, Env. Res. Lett., 6, 034021, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034021.

Livneh B, E.A. Rosenberg, C. Lin, B. Nijssen, V. Mishra, K. Andreadis, E.P. Maurer, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2013: A long-term hydrologically based data set of land surface fluxes and states for the conterminous United States: Updates and extensions, Journal of Climate, doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00508.1.

Munoz-Arriola, F., R. Avissar, C. Zhu, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2009: Sensitivity of the Water resources of Rio Yaqui Basin, Mexico to agriculture extensification under multi-scale climate conditions, Water Resour. Res. 45, W00A20, doi:10.1029/2007WR006783.

Mishra, V., K. A. Cherkauer, and L. C. Bowling, 2010: Parameterization of Lakes and Wetlands for Energy and Water Balance Studies in the Great Lakes Region, J. Hydromet., 11(5), 1057-1082.

Shi, X., M. Wild, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2010: Surface radiative fluxes over the pan-Arctic land region: Variability and trends. J. Geophys. Res., 115, D22104, doi:10.1029/2010JD014402.

Shukla, S., A. C. Steinemann, and D. P. Lettenmaier, 2010: Drought Monitoring for Washington State: Indicators and Applications, Journal of Hydrometeorology, EOR, 10.1175/2010JHM1307.1.

Tang, Q., H. Gao, P. Yeh, T. Oki, F. Su, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2010: Dynamics of terrestrial water storage change from satellite and surface observations and modeling, Journal of Hydrometeorology 11, 156-170. doi:10.1175/2009JHM1152.1.

Other References

Bras, R. F., 1990: Hydrology, an introduction to hydrologic science, Addison-Wesley.

Farouki, O. T., 1981: The thermal properties of soils in cold regions, Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 5(1), 67-75, doi: 10.1016/0165-232X(81)90041-0.

Hostetler, S. W., and P. J. Bartlein, 1990: Simulation of lake evaporation with application to modeling lake level variations of Harney-Malheur lake, Oregon, Wat. Res. Resear., 26(10), 2603-2612.

Hostetler, S. W., 1991: Simulation of lake ice and its effect on the late-Pleistocene evaporation rate of Lake Lahontan, Climate Dynamics, 6, 43-48.

Hostetler, S. W., Bartlein, P. J., Clark, P. U., Small, E. E., and A. M. Soloman, 2000: Simulated influences of Lake Agassiz on the climate of central North America 11,000 years ago, Nature, 405(6784), 334-337.

Kimball, J. S., S. W. Running, and R. R. Nemani, 1997: An improved method for estimating surface humidity from daily minimum temperature, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 85, 87-98.

Thornton, P. E., and S. W. Running, 1999: An improved algorithm for estimating incident daily solar radiation from measurements of temperature, humidity, and precipitation, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 93, 211-228.

Thornton, P. E., H. Hasenauer, and M. A. White, 2000: Simultaneous estimation of daily solar radiation and humidity from observed temperature and precipitation: an application over complex terrain in Austria, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 104, 255-271, doi: 10.1016/S0168-1923(00)00170-2.

Ying Fan, E. Wood, M.L. Baeck, and J. Smith. 1996. Fractional Coverage of Rainfall Over a Grid: Analyses of NEXRAD data over the southern Plains. Water Resour. Res., vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 2787-2802, September 1996

Yapo, P., H. Gupta, and S. Sorooshian, 1998: Multi-objective global optimization for hydrologic models, J. Hydrology, 204(1), 83-97.

VIC Administrator
Last modified: Thu Feb 16 21:02:03 PDT 2012